Table 2
Full-mouth Healthy (n = 147) Gingivitis (n = 183) Periodontitis (n = 150) Difference Pairwise Comparisons
Mean (SD) Median Min - Max Mean (SD) Median Min - Max Mean (SD) Median Min - Max KW P vs P
PD 1.35 (0.19) 1.35 1 - 1.75 1.86 (0.25) 1.9 1.35 - 2.38 3.26 (0.7) 2.96 2.13 - 5 49.86 P < 0.001a 1 vs 2 P < 0.05a
1 vs 3 P < 0.001a
2 vs 3 P < 0.001a
CAL 1.35 (0.19) 1.35 1 - 1.75 1.89 (0.26) 1.92 1.35 - 2.5 4.12 (0.93) 4.06 2.8 - 5.69 49.86 P < 0.001a 1 vs 2 P < 0.05a
1 vs 3 P < 0.001a
2 vs 3 P < 0.001a
GI 0.16 (0.17) 0.09 0 - 0.53 1.2 (0.35) 1.24 0.45 - 2.01 1.57 (0.3) 1.56 1.02 - 2 43.14 P < 0.001a 1 vs 2 P < 0.001a
1 vs 3 P < 0.001a
2 vs 3 P < 0.05a
GBTI 0.14 (0.13) 0.14 0 - 0.53 2.33 (0.7) 2.51 0.6 - 3 2.69 (0.53) 3 1.21 - 3 42.51 P < 0.001a 1 vs 2 P < 0.001a
1 vs 3 P < 0.001a
2 vs 3 P > 0.05
PI 0.1 (0.05) 0.11 0.01 - 0.2 0.92 (0.39) 0.87 0.28 - 1.99 1.19 (0.4) 1.18 0.49 - 1.98 41.48 P < 0.001a 1 vs 2 P < 0.001a
1 vs 3 P < 0.001a
2 vs 3 P > 0.05
Saliva nitrite
level (µM)
8.67 (8.68) 5.5 0.27 - 33.14 5.56 (4.53) 4.12 0.91 - 16.64 5.55 (5.39) 4.12 0 - 18.28 1.34 P > 0.05 1 vs 2 N/A
1 vs 3
2 vs 3
Saliva nitrate
level (µM)
20.65 (12.2) 21.68 0 - 38.07 18.5 (16.7) 9.23 0 - 46.49 16.19 (15.49) 15.98 0 - 46.49 1.178 P > 0.05 1 vs 2 N/A
1 vs 3
2 vs 3

aStatistically significant, Dunn test.
SD = standard deviation; N/A = not available; KW = Kruskal-Wallis test.