Study Year of publication Patient Materials and methods Primary outcome measures Secondary outcome measures
Implant Implant platform design Prosthetic solution Time before loading (months) Length of observation period after loading (months) Survival of implants Clinical soft tissue measurements Peri-implant marginal bone loss
Mean (SD) mm
Professional and patient-reported outcome measures
Mean (SD)
Delayed implant placement
den Hartog et al. [19] 2013 93 31 Smooth, flat Single crown 3 12 96.8% No significant differences between the groups regarding implant crown aesthetic index or peri-implant mucosa 1.2 (0.8) PES WES GPS
6 (1.9) 7.2 (1.5) 8.8 (1.1)
31 Rough, flat 100% 0.9 (0.6) 6.3 (1.7) 7.4 (1.6) 8.9 (1)
31 Rough, scalloped 100% 2 (0.8)b 6.6 (1.6) 7.2 (1.6) 9.1 (0.8)
Khraisat et al. [20] 2013 24 12 Rough, flat Single crown 6 36 100% Soft tissue levels were not maintained around the scalloped implants Mesial: 1.4 (0.6)
Distal: 1.3 (0.7)
No data
12 Smooth, scalloped 100% Mesial: 3.5 (0.8)a
Distal: 3.5 (1)a
Van Nimwegen et al. [21] 2015 40 40 Rough, flat Single crown 3 60 100% Pocket probing depth Mean (SD) 1.5 (0.8) ICAI GPS
FAI MD FAT No significant differences between the groups 9.1 (0.8)
3.8 (1.2) 3 (0.8) 3.2 (1.1)
40 Rough, scalloped 95% 4.9 (2)a 4.8 (2.2)a 4.7 (2.4)a 3.2 (1.1)c 8.4 (1.7)

aP < 0.001 (Repeated-measures analysis of variance).
bP < 0.05 (One way analysis of variance).
cP < 0.001 (Independent t-test).
SD = standard deviation; FAI = facing adjacent implant; FAT = facing adjacent tooth; GPS = general patient satisfaction; ICAI = implant crown aesthetic index; MD = midbuccally; PES = pink aesthetic score; WES = white aesthetic score.