Topic Study Year of publication Study design Evidence level Cleft Aim of the study Sample
Effect of nasal molding Effect of alveolar molding Other Outcomes Follow-up Study limit
Three-dimensional analysis
Singh et al. [61] 2007 Prospective study II UCLP Evaluate with three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry the facial morphology after NAM 25
(NAM + surgery: 15)
No cleft:
Digital stereophotogrammetry used to capture three-dimensional facial image Three-dimensional facial morphology virtually indistinguishable from the non-cleft - - 37 weeks + 4 weeks after surgery -
Baek and Son [62] 2006 Prospective study II UCLP Assess alveolar molding effect and growth with CAD 16 NA CAD - Reduction cleft gap - 2 months after cheilioplasty No control group
Singh et al. [63] 2005 Prospective study III UCLP Evaluate three-dimensional change nasal morphology with NAM 10 NA Three-dimensional facial image captured with digital stereophotogrammetry Size increase on the cleft and non-cleft side. Symmetry improved - - Before surgical repair No control group
Three-dimensional analysis (CAD) and printing (CAM) Shen et al. [53] 2015 Prospective study II UCLP Evaluate effect three-dimensional printing NAM 17 None Measured on three-dimensional computed tomography scans before and after NAM treatment - Alveolus became more contiguous and cleft gap was reduced 11 patients had mucosal irritation, minor mucosal ulceration, decrease cost of treatment Post treatment (before cheiloplasty) -
Yu et al. [64] 2013 Randomized control study II UCLP Evaluate efficiency of CAD-NAM therapy (7 - 10 pairs of appliances) 30
(CAD-NAM treated: 15)
Non-presurgical therapy: 15 Measurement on scanned cast - Reduce cleft gap and arch length. Decrease alveolar high - Average 123 days -

UCLP = unilateral cleft lip and/or palate; BCLP = bilateral cleft lip and/or palate; CAD/CAM = computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture.