Before 6-month
postoperative
P significancea
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Vertical 11.1 (2.4) 15.6 (2.8) < 0.05
Horizontal/apical 1.4 (0.3) 1.9 (0.4) < 0.05
Horizontal/coronal 1.8 (0.2) 8.3 (1.1) < 0.05
Area (mm2) 17.76 (4.1) 79.56 (10.4) < 0.05

aStatistically significant at the level P < 0.05, Pearson's Chi-squared test.
CBCT = cone-beam computed tomography; SD = standard deviation.