Study Socket location Reason for extraction Confounding factors Surgical management
Thakkar et al. [30] Single-rooted teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches Severe dental decay None Flapless, atraumatic extraction, wound sutured with criss-cross horizontal mattress technique
Baniasadi and Evrard [31] Single-rooted and multi-rooted teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches Severe dental decay, fracture, periodontal disease 30% of patients were smokers Flapless. atraumatic extraction, wound sutured
Das et al. [32] Isolated alveolar sockets (a socket located between two sound teeth) of maxillary and mandibular single-rooted teeth Caries, endodontic complications (e.g., root fracture), periodontitis, and prosthetic reason None Muco-periosteal envelope flap, atraumatic extraction, cross-mattress sutures to close the wound
Hauser et al. [33] Premolars of maxillary and mandibular arches Endodontic treatment failures, root fractures, advanced caries lesions, and periodontally compromised teeth Not available A buccal and palatal/lingual mucosal flap, wound sutured with a point-cross technique
Wood and Mealey [34] Single-rooted teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches Not available None Flapless, atraumatic extraction, wound sutured
Gholami et al. [35] Non-molar teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches Endodontic treatment failures, trauma, prosthetic issues None Buccal mucosal flap, atraumatic extraction, flap sutured to allow tension-free primary closure
Barone et al. [36] Premolars and molars in maxillary and mandibular arches Severe decay, failed endodontic treatment, periodontal disease, fractures None Flapless, atraumatic extraction, socket covered with collagen membrane, wound sutured without marginal closure
Kotsakis et al. [37] Not available Not available Smoking
(< 10 cigarettes a day)
Flapless, atraumatic extraction, wound closed with a horizontal mattress suture
Mahesh et al. [38] Single-rooted teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches Not available Smoking
(< 10 cigarettes a day)
Flapless extraction, wound sutured using horizontal mattress suture
Barone et al. [39] Not available Not available Smoking
(< 10 cigarettes a day)
Flapless, atraumatic extraction, wound covered with collagen membrane and sutured
Canullo et al. [40] Maxillary premolars Not available None Flapless, atraumatic extraction, wound covered with collagen membrane
Mayer et al. [41] Not available Not available Smoking
(< 10 cigarettes a day)
Muco-periosteal flap, atraumatic extraction, wound sutured and primary closure ensured
Joshi et al. [42] Not available Not available Not available Flapless, atraumatic extraction, socket covered with collagen membrane, one criss-cross suture to stabilize the membrane
Pang et al. [43] Not available Not available None Rectangular full-thickness flap, atraumatic extraction, socket covered with collagene membrane, wound sutured
Natto et al [44] Single-rooted tooth (excluding lower incisors) Caries, endodontic complication, root fracture, or trauma with no evidence of acute infection Smoking
(< 10 cigarettes a day)
Flapless, atraumatic extraction, socket covered with collagen membrane, wound closed with horizontal mattress suture
Nam et al. [45] Not available Advanced periodontal and/or endodontic lesion Not available A buccal and palatal/lingual mucosal flap, atraumatic extraction, flaps sutured using interrupted and vertical mattress sutures