Author Year Country Gender age Aetiology Side and area involved Imaging examinationsa Imaging featuresb
Hanisch et al. [1]c 2018 Germany Male 28 Inflammation/infection Right, medial pterygoid muscles CT Calcification
Jiang et al. [2] 2015 China Female 42 Inflammation/infection Right, medial and lateral pterygoid muscles PR, CT PR (panoramic radiograph): chronic periapical lesions;
CT: heterotopic bone formation;
MRI: normal anatomic structures
Jayade et al. [3] 2014 India Female 25 Not determined Bilateral, medial and lateral pterygoid muscles CT, MRI CT: heterotopic bone formation and specks of calcification;
MRI: ossification and hyperostosis in the muscle
Ratansi et al. [4] 2017 UK Female 41 Not determined Right, temporal region (infratemporal fossa and masticatory spaces) CTBC, MRI, PET CTBC: soft tissue lesion;
MRI: “plaque-like tissue”;
PET: low grade uptake in the infratemporal fossa and masticator spaces
Reddy et al. [5] 2014 India Male 21 Trauma Left, temporal and medial pterygoid muscles CT, MRI CT: calcified masses within temporal muscle;
MRI: hematoma-like lesion within temporal muscle
Nemoto et al. [6] 2012 Japan Male 39 Trauma Left and right, masseter, temporal, pterygoid and frontal muscles PR, CT PR: calcification in the buccal muscles bilaterally;
CT: hyperdense areas (calcifications) within temporal, lateral pterygoid, frontal and masseter muscles
Godhi et al. [7] 2011 India Male 21 Not determined Right, temporal and lateral pterygoid muscles CT Calcifications involving masticatory muscles and fascia; a thick osseous bridge was observed in the region of the inferior head of the right lateral pterygoid muscle
Conner and Duffy [8] 2009 USA Female 18 Trauma (exodontia) Right, medial pterygoid and temporal muscles CT Impressive calcification of the right and medial pterygoid muscles
Yano et al. [9] 2005 Japan Male 34 Trauma Masseter (bilateral) and temporal muscles (left) PR, CT PR: calcification in the galea and scalp;
CT: high density calcification within bilateral masseter muscles
St-Hilarie et al. [10] 2004 USA Female 68 Trauma (anaesthesia) Left, masseter, pterygoid and temporalis muscles PR, CT PR: no pathological findings;
CT: calcification and inflammation within the temporal and pterygoid muscle
Spinazze et al. [11] 1998 USA Male 55 Muscule stress Left, lateral pterygoid PR, CT, MRI PR: coronoid hypertrophy;
CT: coronoid hypertrophy, spotty diffuse a calcification in the temporal muscle nearby the coronoid process;
MRI: intraarticular adhesion or partial bony ankylosis
Myoken et al. [12] 1998 Japan Male 55 Trauma Bilateral, temporal muscle CT Bilateral radiopacity within temporal muscle
Guarda-Nardini et al. [16] 2011 Italy Male 50 Trauma Right, temporal muscle CT Osseous neoformation in the area of the temporal muscle
Manzano et al. [18] 2007 Spain Male 51 Trauma Right, temporal muscles PR, CT PR: (ortopantomography) bone density opacity in the region of right coronoid process;
CT: bone density mass in the region of temporal fossa, that fussed the right temporal bone with its correspondent coronoid process
Uematsu et al. [19] 2005 Japan Female 38 Not determined Left, temporal muscle CT, MRI CT: high density mass in the subcutaneous tissue (no apparent calcification);
MRI: isointense area in the temporal muscle in T1-weighted images, heterogeneous mass in the temporal muscle
Saka et al. [20] 2002 Germany Male 33 Trauma Left, temporal muscle PR, CT, MRI, USG PR: no pathological findings;
CT and MRI: not described;
USG: heterogeneous echogenic mass in the temporal muscle
Mevio et al. [21] 2001 Italy Female 55 Trauma Right, temporal muscle CT Area of ossification within the right temporal muscle
Lello and Makek [22] 1986 Switz. Male 34 Trauma (accident) Left, masseter muscle CT Peripheral hyperdense mass with a hypodense central area
Wiesenfeld et al. [23] 1985 England Female 10 Not determined Right, temporal muscle PR, CT PR: calcification;
CT: calcification with involvement of temporal muscle
Fité-Trepat et al, [24] 2016 Spain Female 49 Repetitive infection related to the third molar Left, masseter muscle PR, CT PR (orthopantomography) and CT: well-defined calcification
Cavalheiro et al. [25] 2019 Brazil Male 71 Trauma (gunshot) Left, temporal, masseter and mimetic muscles CT Amorphous ossified formations, in a cortical/medullar pattern
Karaali and Emeki [26] 2018 Turkey Female 30 Trauma (third molar extraction) Right, medial pterygoid muscles CT, MRI CT: irregular heterotopic calcification;
MRI (temporomandibular joint): no abnormal findings
Onishi et al. [27] 2018 Japan Male 27 Inflammation/infection Left, masseter, temporal, pterygoid medial and lateral muscles CT, MRI, USG (doppler) CT: swelling in the masticatory muscles without calcification;
MRI: diffusely enlarged contrast-enhanced masticatory muscles appearing hyperintense on T1;
USG: normal carotid, temporal and maxillary arteries
Becker et al. [28] 2016 Brazil Male 17 Trauma (fracture) Right, temporal muscle CT Cortical thickening and periosteal reaction of the coronoid process; soft tissue volume increase
Damian et al. [29] 2016 Romania Female 22 Not determined Right, temporal muscle US Enlarged of the muscle involved
Wang et al. [30] 2016 China Female 49 Trauma (fall accident) Right, temporal muscle CT Expanding hyperdense mass (heterotopic bone formation)
Dermirkol et al. [31] 2015 Turkey Female 64 Trauma Left, masseter muscle PR, CT PR (panoramic radiograph) ovoid masses;
CT: small rounded radiolucent areas with central calcifications, within the muscle
Ferra et al. [32] 2015 USA Female 50 Infection (abscess) Right, medial pterygoid muscles CT Heterotopic ossification with mature bone replacing.

aConsidering only preoperative imaging examinations, according to the author's description.
bConsidering exclusively authors description.
cSystematic literature review with a description of the case report.
PR = plain radiograph; CTBC = cone-beam computed tomography; CT = computed tomography; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; USG = ultrasound examination; PET = positron emission tomographic scan; HU = Hounsfield unit.