Study Year of
Type of
Number of
Number of
Asadzadeh et al. [45] 2012 Peri-implant tissues 20 patients 20 implants Correlation between the increase in peri-implant BOP from 1 to 6 months after loading
and an increase in colonies of Streptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp.
Neilands et al. [46] 2015 Peri-implantitis
peri-implant health
50 patients
(25 peri-implantitis;
25 healthy)
1 implant
per patient
Highly variable microbial composition.
Significantly higher prevalence of Porphyromonas/Prevotella and anaerobic Gram positive cocci in peri-implantitis.
Tripodakis et al. [47] 2011 Peri-implant tissue
periodontal disease
20 patients 20 periodontal sites
that became
20 peri-implant sites
Spirochetes in peri-implant samples: 69% vs. 2% at baseline and 12 months, respectively.
Higher colony forming units (CFU)/ml in samples from periodontal sites.
de Waal et al. [48] 2013 Peri-implantitis 30 patients
(15 placebo;
15 test [chlorhexidine])
79 implants
(48 placebo; 31 test)
Sixty of the 79 implants were positive at baseline.
A.a. not detected.
Both procedures reduced P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythia, F. nucleatum, P. micra and C. rectus.