Study Year of publication Type of
Number of
Number of
Casado et al. [49] 2011 Peri-implant health vs. mucositis vs. peri-implantitis 30 subjects 30 implants (10 healthy;
10 peri-implant mucositis;
10 peri-implantitis)
No differences in A.a., P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. denticola.
Canullo et al. [50] 2016 Peri-implant health vs.
peri-implantitis vs. neighboring teeth
534 patients
(53 peri-implantitis;
481 non-peri-implantitis)
1507 implants
(231 peri-implantitis;
1276 non-peri-implantitis)
No relevant differences between the healthy and disease implants in the same patient. Similar in the neighboring teeth with a lower P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia, P. micros, and E. corrodens.
Wang et al. [51] 2015 Peri-implant health vs.
68 patients
(34 healthy; 34 peri-implantitis)
1 per patient A.a., P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola associated with peri- implantitis although no statistically significant.
Canullo et al. [52] 2015 Peri-implant health vs.
peri-implantitis vs. neighboring teeth
110 patients
(53 peri-implantitis;
57 non-peri-implantitis)
235 implants
(113 peri-implantitis;
122 non-peri-implantitis)
> 20% differences between healthy and disease implants for T. denticola and E. corrodens. Marked differences between health and peri-implantitis for the red complex bacteria and P. intermedia.
Canullo et al. [53] 2016 Peri-implant health vs.
47 patients
(25 peri-implantitis;
22 non-peri-implantitis)
90 implants
(113 peri-implantitis;
122 non-peri-implantitis)
Significantly higher T. forsythia, T. denticola, F. nucleatum, P. intermedia, P. micros, C. rectus, E. corrodens, C. albicans, P. nigrescens, C. gracilis, C. ochracea, C. concisus, Streptococcus spp., A. odontolyticus, V. parvula, and E. faecalis in peri-implantitis.
Zhuang et al. [54] 2016 Peri-implant health and disease vs. periodontal health and disease 22 patients with at least 1 diseased implant, 1 diseased tooth, 1 healthy implant and 1 healthy tooth 1 per patient and condition S. aureus and F. nucleatum were the most commonly detected species. Only F. nucleatum was more abundant in periodontitis. Only P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were more prevalent in periodontitis than peri-implantitis.
Aoki et al. [55] 2012 Implants vs. adjacent, occluding and contralateral teeth 21 patients NS No significant differences in A.a., P. intermedia, P.  gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola or F. nucleatum.
Cosgarea et al. [56] 2012 Implants in chronic periodontitis patients vs.
24 patients
(11 periodontitis;
13 no periodontitis)
NS Higher P. gingivalis and A.a. at implants and teeth in the chronic periodontitis group. More A.a., T. forsythia and F. nucleatum at teeth than at implants. PD and CAL correlated with counts of P. gingivalis at teeth and implants.
Sato et al. [57] 2011 Peri-implantitis vs. teeth 105 patients with residual natural teeth and implants with peri-implantitis 1 per patient and condition The number and detection rate of periodontopathic bacteria increased with CIST level. No difference in P. gingivalis and T. denticola between CIST-B and CIST-C. Higher detection rate of all periodontopathic bacteria for CIST-D.
Canullo et al. [82] 2015 Implant-diseased individuals  38 patients 180 sites 3 sites showed presence of E. faecalis and 1 showed presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Jankovic et al. [83] 2011 Peri-implant health vs. mucositis vs. peri-implantitis 80 patients
(25 healthy; 25 mucositis;
30 peri-implantitis)
1 implant per patient HCMV-2 detected in 53.3% and EBV-1 in 46.6% of the peri-implantitis sites. HCMV-2 not detected in healthy sites and EBV-1 in only one healthy site. Statistically significant correlation between the presence of HCMV-2 and EBV-1 genotypes and clinical parameters of peri-implantitis.
Swierkot et al. [84] 2013 Healthy implants 83 patients
(42 with sonic toothbrush;
41 with manual toothbrush)
1 per patient and condition No significant changes in the microbiological parameters. Both groups exhibited a small increase in total bacterial load at implants and teeth.
van Brakel et al. [85] 2011 Peri-implant tissues at zirconia and titanium implants 22 patients 1 per patient and type of
Similar A.a., P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythia, P. micros, F. nucleatum and T. denticola at 2 weeks and 3 months.

NS = not specified; CIST = cumulative interceptive supportive therapy; PD = probing depth; CAL = clinical attachment level; HCMV = human cytomegalovirus; EBV = Epstein-Barr virus.