Study Year of publication Type of
patients/sites
Number of
patients
Number of
implants/sites
Outcome
Tamura et al. [64] 2013 Peri-implant health vs. disease 30 patients (15 healthy; 15 peri-implantitis) 1 per patient Healthy sites: Streptococcus, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Actinomyces israelii, Propionibacterium acnes, and P. micra.
Peri-implantitis: Eubacterium nodatum, Eubacterium brachy, Eubacterium saphenum, Filifactor alocis, Spodoptera exigua, Parascardovia denticolens, P. intermedia, F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, Centipeda periodontii, and P. micra.
Peri-implantitis sites had approximately 10-fold higher CFU/ml than healthy sites.
Cortelli et al. [65] 2013 Peri-implant health and disease vs. periodontal health and disease 306 patients (53 peri-implant health; 50 peri-implant mucositis; 50 peri-implantitis; 50 gingivitis;
50 periodontitis)
NS Higher bacterial frequency in peri-implantitis than health; similar frequencies in peri-implantitis and mucositis; higher bacterial frequency at teeth.
P. gingivalis and red complex: more common in peri-implantitis than mucositis.
C. rectus and T. forsythia: more frequent in healthy teeth/gingivitis than healthy implants/mucositis.
P. gingivalis and A.a.: similar in periodontitis and peri-implantitis.
Other species: higher in periodontitis than peri-implantitis.
Zheng et al. [66] 2015 Peri-implant health vs. disease 24 patients (10 healthy; 8 peri-implant mucositis;
6 peri-implantitis)
1 per patient Higher diversity in ailing implants, vs. healthy implants. P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and P. intermedia clustered in peri-implant mucositis. Peri-implantitis pathogens were present in peri-implant mucositis. Microbiome of mucositis were intermediate in nature between healthy and peri-implantitis.
Tsigarida et al. [67] 2015 Peri-implant health vs. disease 80 patients (40 peri-implant health [20 smokers and
20 non-smokers]; 20 peri-implant mucositis [10 smokers and 10 non-smokers]; 20 peri-implantitis [10 smokers and
10 non-smokers])
1 per patient and condition Lower diversity with higher disease-associated species in healthy sites of smokers. Shifts from health to mucositis accompanied by loss of several health-associated species. Peri-implantitis did not differ from mucositis. In non-smokers, the shift from health to mucositis increased diversity. Few differences were detected between peri-implantitis and mucositis.
Koyanagi et al. [68] 2013 Peri-implant disease vs. periodontal disease 6 patients 12 sites (6 implants; 6 teeth) More diverse microbial composition of peri-implantitis than periodontitis.
P. micra only in peri-implantitis.
da Silva et al. [69] 2014 Peri-implantitis vs. healthy implants vs. healthy teeth 20 patients (10 with healthy implants; 10 with at least 1 healthy implant, 1 peri-implantitis and periodontally healthy teeth) NS Higher Actinomyces, Atopobium, Gemella, Kingella and Rothia and lower Campylobacter, Desulfobulbus, Dialister, Eubacterium, Filifactor, Mitsukella, Porphyromonas and Pseudoramibacter in healthy implants.
Higher F. nucleatum, Dialister invisus, Streptococcus sp. human oral taxon (HOT) 064, Fillifactor alocis and Mitsuokella sp. HOT 131 and lower Veillonella dispar, Actinomyces meyeri, Granulicatella adiacens in peri-implantitis.
Maruyama et al. [70] 2014 Peri-implant disease vs. periodontal disease 20 patients 1 implant per patient Higher Olsenella, Sphingomonas, Peptostreptococcus, and unclassified Neisseriaceae and lower Desulfomicrobium in peri-implantitis vs. periodontitis.
P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia were abundant and prevalent in both diseases.
Kumar et al. [71] 2012 Peri-implant health and disease vs. periodontal health and disease 40 patients (10 peri-implantitis; 10 peri-implant health;
10 chronic periodontitis; 10 periodontal health)
1 per patient Significantly lower diversity of peri-implant biofilms than subgingival biofilms in both health and disease.
Heuer et al. [72] 2012 Peri-implant mucositis vs. periodontal gingivitis 9 patients 1 per patient and condition Higher diversity in gingival than peri-implant sulci.
Dabdoub et al. [73] 2013 Peri-implant health and disease vs. periodontal health and disease 81 subjects (33 healthy tooth/healthy implant; 23 healthy tooth/diseased implant; 8 diseased tooth/healthy implant; 17 diseased tooth/diseased implant) 162 sites (56 healthy teeth; 13 gingivitis;
12 periodontitis; 41 peri-implant health;
20 peri-implant mucositis; 20 peri-implantitis)
Sixty percent of individuals share < 50% of all species between their periodontal and peri-implant biofilms; 85% of individuals share < 8%. Distinct bacterial lineages associated with health and disease in teeth and implants. The periodontal microbiome demonstrated significantly higher diversity than the implant. Staphylococcus and Treponema were significantly associated with diseased implants, but not teeth.
Zhang et al. [74] 2015 Peri-implant disease vs. periodontal disease 20 patients (10 healthy; 10 chronic periodontitis) 1 per patient Lower A.a., P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola and higher Pseudomonas in peri-implant sites vs. chronic periodontitis. Different SR1 genus, Brevundimonas, Catonella, Desulfovibrio, Mogibacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium and Pseudomonas between the two groups. Higher bacterial diversity in teeth vs. implants.
Schaumann et al. [88] 2014 Peri-implant disease vs. periodontal disease 7 patients with bleeding periodontal and peri-implant tissues and bone loss 1 per patient and condition Streptococcacea, Rothia and Porphyromonas were the most abundant taxa in supramucosal or supragingival plaques on implants and teeth. In submucosal plaques at implants, the most abundant taxa were Rothia, Streptococcaceae and Porphyromonas. The most abundant subgingival bacteria on teeth were Prevotella, Streptococcaceae and TG5.
Faveri et al. [89] 2011 Peri-implantitis vs. healthy implants vs. healthy teeth 50 patients (25 healthy; 25 with at least 1 healthy implant, 1 peri-implantitis and periodontally healthy teeth) NS Higher positive sites for Archaea in peri-implantitis than healthy implants or healthy teeth. No significant differences in healthy teeth vs. healthy implants.
Heuer et al. [90] 2013 Peri-implant tissue at implant-supported bar attachments vs. implant-fixed telescopic double crown attachments vs. teeth 16 patients (8 healthy implant-supported bar-attached supraconstruction; 8 healthy implant-anchored telescopic double crown attachments) 1 implant per patient No statistically significant differences.

NS = not specified.