2021 Jan-Mar; Vol 12, No 1
Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation with Autogenous Bone Graft Compared with a Composite Grafting Material or Bone Substitute Alone: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Assessing Volumetric Stability of the Grafting Material
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2021;12(1):e1
Objectives: Test the hypothesis of no difference in the volumetric stability of the grafting material following maxillary sinus floor augmentation with autogenous bone graft compared with composite grafting material or bone substitute alone applying the lateral window technique.
Material and Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane library and hand-search of relevant journals were conducted. Human studies published in English until the 9th of October 2020 were included. Outcome measures included three-dimensional volumetric changes of the grafting material and potential predictive parameters. Volumetric changes were evaluated by descriptive statistics and meta-analysis including 95% confidence interval.
Results: Electronic search and hand-searching resulted in 102 entries. Four randomized controlled trials with unclear risk of bias fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The volumetric stability of the grafting material was significantly improved by mixing autogenous bone graft with a non-resorbable xenograft compared with autogenous bone graft. Meta-analyses assessing absolute and relative volumetric changes demonstrated no significant differences between autogenous bone graft compared with allogeneic bone graft, synthetic biomaterials combined with autogenous bone graft or used alone. Association between volumetric changes of the grafting material and potential predictive parameters were not assessed in the included studies.
Conclusions: Volumetric reduction of the augmented area seems inevitable following maxillary sinus floor augmentation regardless of the grafting material. The volumetric stability of autogenous bone graft is improved with addition of xenograft compared with autogenous bone graft. However, conclusions drawn from this systematic review should be interpreted with caution since only four studies using three-dimensional radiographic measurements were included.
Keywords: alveolar ridge augmentation; dental implants; oral surgical procedures; review; sinus floor augmentation.
A Questionnaire of Digital Radiography and CBCT Use and Knowledge among Lithuanian Dentists
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2021;12(1):e2
Objectives: Digital radiography is an increasingly used technology in Lithuania. However, there is no published information about using cone-beam computed tomography. The aims of this cross-sectional study performed in Lithuania were (1) to obtain information about the prevalence and accessibility of digital radiography and cone-beam computed tomography usage, and (2) to estimate dental practitioners’ knowledge about this diagnostic method and their need for education.
Material and Methods: Questionnaires consisting of 31 questions were distributed during the 2019 International Dentist Congress in Lithuania.
Results: This study analyses the data obtained from 248 respondents. Most of the clinicians use digital radiographic methods in their practice. The institutions usually have a digital dental X-ray machine, less often a digital panoramic X-ray machine, and least often a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit. Most dental practitioners performed 1 to 10 CBCT scans per month for adult patients and the most frequent reason for its use was implantation planning. Of the practitioners, 81.7% would like to improve their CBCT knowledge and skills.
Conclusions: The number of digital X-ray machines has increased throughout the last decade. Lithuanian dental practitioners do not excessively use cone-beam computed tomography. Some concerns were raised regarding respondents’ knowledge about exposure factors and this diagnostic method’s performance for paediatric patients. Additional training should be provided to Lithuanian dental specialists.
Keywords: cone-beam computed tomography; dentistry; digital radiography; questionnaire; survey.
PTEN and α-SMA Expression and Diagnostic Role in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Concomitant Oral Submucous Fibrosis
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2021;12(1):e3
Objectives: The diagnostic role and correlation between phosphatase and tensin homologue and alpha-smooth muscle actin in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma with concomitant oral submucous fibrosis was analysed by this case control study. The mechanism by which phosphatase and tensin homologue controls myofibroblast expression was also evaluated.
Material and Methods: Overall, 10 normal mucosa, 30 oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and 30 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with OSF were stained immunohistochemically with phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Percentage positivity, pattern of expression was statistically compared using Pearson’s Chi-square and Fischer exact tests. The correlation between markers was analysed using Spearman correlation.
Results: OSF and OSCC affected males predominantly with majority below 40 years and above 40 years of age respectively. Percentage of PTEN positive cells was statistically significant with gender (P = 0.024) and α-SMA distribution of pattern showed a significant correlation with habits (P = 0.018). A significant decrease in nuclear PTEN positivity (P < 0.001) and a gradual increase in α-SMA cytoplasmic expression was noted from NM to OSF and OSCC. A statistically significant weak inverse correlation existed between PTEN and α-SMA.
Conclusions: A reduced phosphatase and tensin homologue expression in oral submucous fibrosis makes it more prone for malignant transformation. An increase in stromal desmoplasia modifies differentiation, invasive and proliferative capacity of tumour cells. As phosphatase and tensin homologue functions through P-Akt pathway, P-Akt with phosphatase and tensin homologue could be a therapeutic target.
Keywords: immunohistochemistry; myofibroblast; oral cancer; oral submucous fibrosis; prognosis; tumor suppressor gene.
NR4A3 (NOR-1) Immunostaining Shows Better Performance than DOG1 Immunostaining in Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Gland: a Preliminary Study
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2021;12(1):e4
Objectives: Acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland harbours recurrent and specific chromosomal rearrangement [t(4;9)(q13;q31)], resulting in the translocation of secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein gene cluster at 4q13 to nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group a member 3 at 9q31. This upregulates the transcription factor nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the performance of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 immunostaining on whole-slide acinic cell carcinoma tissue, in comparison with discovered on GIST-1 immunostaining.
Material and Methods: We retrieved 6 cases of acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), including 5 conventional low-grade and 1 dedifferentiated high-grade. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (NR4A3) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) were performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on all retrieved cases.
Results: The result shows that NR4A3 IHC shows better performance than DOG1 IHC: 5 of the 6 (83.3%) AciCC cases (including the dedifferentiated high-grade) demonstrated strong diffuse nuclear staining for NR4A3, also five AciCC cases (including the dedifferentiated high-grade) demonstrated weak to moderate membranous staining with variable distribution for DOG1. Moreover, only 3 (50%) cases showed complete membranous staining with DOG1.
Conclusions: This pilot study showed that nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 immunostaining is a sensitive marker for acinic cell carcinoma and of better utility than discovered on GIST-1 immunostaining in making a diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma.
Keywords: gene rearrangement; immunohistocytochemistry; malignant neoplasms.
Small Dysplastic Oral Leucoplakia in a Smoking Woman: a Case Report
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2021;12(1):e5
Background: Oral leucoplakia is clinical term used to describe white plaques, and that is part of the group of oral potentially malignant disorders. Leucoplakia may show epithelial dysplasia, mainly in harder smoking patient. This case report discusses a small leucoplakia with dysplasia on the tongue’s lateral border in a woman, diagnosed early after a routine clinical consultation.
Methods: A 57-year-old female patient consulted to the Oral Diagnosis and Surgery Service of the State University of Ponta Grossa, Brazil. First, the patient was referred for the extraction of her lower incisors due to periodontal disease. During clinical examination, was identified a sessile white plaque, of small size, and located on the tongue’s left lateral border. Thus, the lesion’s diagnostic hypothesis was oral leucoplakia due to patient be chronic smoker for 40 years. The incisional biopsy was performed, with the epithelial tissue and part of the connective tissue removed.
Results: The histopathological examination revealed a stratified and keratinized pavement epithelium, with cellular atypia, and presence of hyperchromatism and nuclear pleomorphism. However, the alterations were restricted to the epithelium’s basal, characterizing a mild dysplasia. The proposed treatment was surgical removal of the lesion, and the patient was also instructed to quit smoking, as well as she continues to follow-up.
Conclusions: The presented case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and the orientation of risk factors to smoking patients, even in small lesions that can clinically appear harmless.
Keywords: diagnosis; leucoplakia; smoking; risk factors.