2022 Jan-Mar; Vol 13, No 1
Lateral Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Autogenous Tooth Block Graft Compared with Autogenous Bone Block Graft: a Systematic Review
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(1):e1
Objectives: The objective of the present systematic review was to evaluate the current knowledge of implant treatment outcome following lateral alveolar ridge augmentation with autogenous tooth block graft compared with autogenous bone block graft prior to implant placement.
Material and Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane Library search in combination with hand-search of relevant journals was conducted including human studies published in English through December 20, 2021. Comparative and non-comparative studies assessing lateral alveolar ridge augmentation with autogenous tooth block graft were included. Quality and risk-of-bias assessment were evaluated by Cochrane risk of bias tool, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and GRADE system.
Results: One comparative study characterized by low grade and two non-comparative studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No significant difference in short-term implant survival, health status of the peri-implant tissue or frequency of complications between the two treatment modalities was observed. Postoperative dimensional changes of the alveolar ridge width were significant diminished with tooth block compared with bone block (P = 0.0029). Consequently, the gain in alveolar ridge width was significantly higher with tooth block, after 26 weeks (P = 0.014). However, a higher frequency of short-term peri-implant mucositis was observed with tooth block.
Conclusions: Lateral alveolar ridge augmentation with tooth block seems to be a suitable alternative to bone block. However, results of the present systematic review are based on short-term studies involving small patient samples. Further long-term randomized controlled trials are therefore needed before definite conclusions can be provided about the beneficial use of tooth block compared with bone block.
Keywords: alveolar bone grafting; alveolar ridge augmentation; dental implants; oral surgical procedures; review.
Amoxicillin/Metronidazole Dose Impact as an Adjunctive Therapy for Stage II - III Grade C Periodontitis (Aggressive Periodontitis) at 3- And 6-Month Follow-Ups: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(1):e2
Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis study sought to review the efficacy of amoxicillin/metronidazole dose and duration time in the treatment of Stage II - III Grade C periodontitis (aggressive periodontitis) after current follow-up.
Material and Methods: An electronic search of the literature was performed in three main databases for relevant articles published until 31th of December 2021. According to the PRISMA statement, the extracted data from selected articles were pooled. The weighted mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of clinical attachment level (CAL) gain and probing depth (PD) reduction at 3 and 6 months of follow-up were calculated. The heterogeneity of the data was evaluated by the I2 test.
Results: The results of six randomized clinical trials revealed significant improvement of clinical parameters in moderate and severe pockets. Prescription of 400 to 500 mg metronidazole caused significant CAL gain changes just in moderate pockets (MD = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.53; P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Amoxicillin/metronidazole has positive short-term effects as an adjunct to scaling and root planning for treatment of stage II - III grade C periodontitis. Higher doses of metronidazole (400 to 500 mg) are required for optimal efficacy regarding clinical attachment level gain.
Keywords: aggressive periodontitis; amoxicillin; drug dose-response relationship; meta-analysis; metronidazole; dental scaling.
What Is the Success of Implants Placed in Fibula Flap? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(1):e3
Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the success rate of osseointegrated dental implants placed secondarily in fibula free flaps using the Albrektsson and colleagues criteria.
Material and Methods: A computerized database search was performed using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane CENTRAL. Specific ascertainment criteria were applied for the inclusion of the eligible studies. This systematic review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis PRISMA checklist. Risk of bias was assessed for all the included studies.
Results: The meta-analysis was carried using ten studies that met the inclusion criteria. The present review pooled data obtained from 242 patients (167 males and 75 females), with the age range of 13 to 79 years. A total of 848 dental implants were placed in the free fibula flaps. All dental implants were placed in a delayed fashion, ranging from 14 to 192 months. The estimated proportion of successful implants placed in fibula flaps used to reconstruct the maxillomandibular complex was 0.94 or 94% (95% CI [confidence interval] = 0.91 to 0.96]) with an insignificant heterogeneity of 37%, P = 0.12. Using a random effect model the annual implant failure rate was 0.02 with a 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.03.
Conclusions: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis strongly indicate that using objective criteria, delayed implant placement in free fibula flaps is highly successful.
Keywords: dental implants; free tissue flaps; mandibular reconstruction; meta-analysis; prostheses and implants; vascular graft occlusion.
Effect of Starting Posture on Three-Dimensional Jaw and Head Movement
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(1):e4
Objectives: The effect of body posture on movement of the jaw and head has not yet been clearly established. The relationship between jaw and head movement has implications for conditions such as temporomandibular joint disorders which can be associated with neck pain. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the effect of starting posture on three-dimensional movement of the jaw and head, and to examine the relationship between head and jaw movement during mouth opening.
Material and Methods: Fourteen healthy participants performed jaw opening to comfortable and maximal amounts from three starting body postures (neutral, slumped, upright) while three-dimensional movement of the head, jaw, and trunk was tracked. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance analyses examined the effect of posture on jaw and head rotation and translation, and Pearson product moment correlations examined the relationship between jaw opening and head rotation.
Results: Body posture significantly influenced maximal opening but not comfortable opening (P < 0.0033). There was a positive relationship between head extension and maximum opening in an upright posture (r = 0.74, P = 0.006), and head extension and comfortable opening in neutral and upright postures (r = 0.75 to 0.93, P < 0.0033), although there was no relationship between head extension and jaw opening in a slumped posture when opening comfortably.
Conclusions: Posture can affect three-dimensional movement of the jaw when opening. Negating the normal head extension that occurs with mouth opening when in a slumped posture has implications for the development of temporomandibular and neck problems in some individuals.
Keywords: mandible; movement; kinematics; neck; temporomandibular joint; posture.
Acquired Compound Melanocytic Nevus on the Palate of a Child: Report of a Case
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(1):e5
Background: Oral melanocytic nevi are relatively rare in comparison to their cutaneous counterparts. The aim of this manuscript is to present a case of acquired compound oral melanocytic nevi on the hard palatal mucosa of a child.
Methods: A 5-year-old female girl was referred for evaluation of a pigmented lesion on the hard palate. The lesion was asymptomatic and present for approximately 2 months. Oral clinical examination revealed a well-circumscribed brownish macule on the hard palatal mucosa, adjacent to the left first primary upper molar. Considering the recent onset of the lesion, biopsy was recommended, but the patient returned 3 years later, when increase in size with slight asymmetry and colour variation were noticed. An excisional biopsy was performed.
Results: Microscopic examination revealed nevus cells randomly distributed along the basal cell layer and organized into nests along the junctional area and within the papillary layer of lamina propria, while immunohistochemical evaluation showed positivity of nevus cells for SOX-10 and Melan-A. A final diagnosis of compound melanocytic nevi was rendered, and the patient was advised to attend regular follow-up appointments.
Conclusions: Although oral melanocytic nevi are rare in childhood, their potential development should not be overlooked. Acquired oral melanocytic nevi need to be differentiated from several other common (e.g. amalgam tattoo) and uncommon (e.g. melanoma) oral pigmented lesions, as well as from the more rare congenital oral melanocytic nevi. Oral melanocytic nevi with junctional activity (i.e. junctional, compound subtypes) appear to be more common in children, possibly reflecting an earlier developmental stage.
Keywords: benign neoplasms; child; hard palate; melanin; melanocytic nevus; oral pathology.