2022 Oct-Dec; Vol 13, No 4
Investigation to Predict Primary Implant Stability Using Frictional Resistance Torque of Tap Drilling
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(4):e1
Objectives: The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the correlation between the frictional resistance torque of tap drilling prior to implant placement and the primary stability after implant placement.
Material and Methods: Solid rigid polyurethane bone blocks of four different densities were used in this study. A computerized surgical implant motor device was utilized to measure the frictional resistance torque of tap drilling. After the tap torque was measured, the dental implants were inserted at the prepared sites. During the implantation, the insertion torque was recorded, and resonance frequency analysis was performed, the value of which was calculated as the implant stability quotient. Thereafter, the correlation between the tap torque and the primary stability of the implant was evaluated and compared with the standard drilling protocol.
Results: A significant positive correlation was found between the tap torque and insertion torque (Pearson’s r = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between the tap torque and implant stability quotient (Pearson’s r = 0.69, P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: These results suggest that measurement of the frictional resistance torque of tap drilling prior to implant placement could provide helpful information for implant primary stability.
Keywords: bone density; dental implantation; experimental implants.
Evaluation of the Anatomic Position of the Mandibular Canal Regarding to the Segments of the Mandibular Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy to Diminish the Possibility of Injuries: a Pilot Study
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(4):e2
Objectives: This pilot study evaluated the relationship between inferior alveolar nerve location through computed tomography scan and intraoperative inferior alveolar nerve entrapment after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy.
Material and Methods: Overall, 20 helicoidal computed tomography scans were evaluated in patients with facial deformities who underwent to bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The distance from the mandibular canal to the internal surface of the buccal and lingual cortical bone, mandibular thickness, bone density and proportion of medullary and cortical bone in 3 regions were evaluated. During the intraoperative period, the segment to which the nerve remained adhered after performing BSSO was analysed, and the data correlated.
Results: The distance from the mandibular canal to the buccal cortical bone showed a mean of 2.6 mm when the inferior alveolar nerve was adhered to the distal segment and mean of 0.7 mm when the nerve was adhered to the proximal segment. The thickness was 11.2 mm and 9.8 mm when the nerve was adhered the distal the proximal segments respectively. Mandibular thickness, distance from the mandibular canal to the buccal and lingual cortical were statistically related to intraoperative nerve entrapment (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Narrow jaws and the distance from the mandibular canal to buccal cortical bone less than 2 mm increases the risk of the inferior alveolar nerve entrapment in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy.
Keywords: anatomy; mandibular nerve; orthognathic surgery; sagittal split ramus osteotomy.
Potential Histopathological and Immune Biomarkers in Malignant and Non-Malignant Oral Lesions
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(4):e3
Objectives: The presented case-control study was developed to characterize the clinical, histopathological and immunological profile of patients with traumatic injuries, benign neoplasms, potentially malignant oral disorders and malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity, in order to identify biomarkers of malignancy.
Material and Methods: Clinical information was collected from dental records and several techniques were performed, including histopathological evaluation in sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry for programmed death ligand-1 and measurement of serum levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-6, -10 and -12. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS® Statistics software.
Results: This study included 8 patients with traumatic injuries, 8 with benign neoplasms, 6 with potentially malignant oral disorders and 11 with malignant neoplasms. An association was observed between the classification of the lesion and smoking (P < 0.05), the size of the lesion (P < 0.05), the density of the inflammatory infiltrate (P < 0.001), the degree of dysplasia (P < 0.01) and programmed death ligand-1 expression (P < 0.01).
Conclusions: Therefore, it is suggested that smoking, the size of the lesion, the inflammatory infiltrate and the programmed death ligand-1 expression can be considered potential biomarkers of oral malignancy.
Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; mouth diseases; tumor biomarkers; tumor microenvironment.
Intraosseous Epidermoid Cyst: a Case Report
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(4):e4
Background: Epidermoid cysts are benign lesions that occur throughout the body. Their development in the oral cavity is extremely rare. Intraosseous epidermoid cysts of the jaw are even rarer and difficult to distinguish from other lesions. For this reason, we would like to draw the attention of practitioners to this pathology as a differential diagnosis through the presented clinical case.
Methods: This study presents an unusual case of a type of epidermoid cyst in an edentulous maxilla. A 70-year-old man was referred to the Maxillofacial Surgery Division at the University Multiprofile Hospital for Active Treatment and Emergency Medicine “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for a single radiolucent area in his anterior maxilla. The patient underwent surgery to extract the cyst.
Results: Based on the clinical and radiographic evaluation, a preliminary diagnosis of dentigerous residual cyst was made. The histopathological examination of the hematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed an epidermoid cyst based on the observed thick keratin layer resembling epidermis together with the stratified squamous epithelium lining with many layers of sheaves of orthokeratin.
Conclusions: This report presents an uncommon case of an intraosseous epidermoid cyst occurring without a history of maxillary trauma. Although intraosseous epidermoid cysts are extremely rare in jaws, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesions.
Keywords: dermoid cyst; jaw cysts; maxilla; teratoma.
Aplasia of the Major and Minor Salivary Glands: Report of a Rare Case
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2022;13(4):e5
Background: Aplasia of the salivary glands, either partial or involving all the major and possibly the minor salivary glands, is a very rare cause of hyposalivation. The aim of this case report is to present a case of aplasia of the major and minor salivary glands and discuss the relevant literature.
Methods: A 23-year-old woman, with a non-contributory medical and family history was referred due to rampant caries, that could not be attributed to any obvious aetiology. No sicca symptoms, previous parotid gland swelling or general symptoms were reported. Clinically, oral mucosa dryness and extended dental erosions and caries were observed, while the orifices of the excretory ducts of the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were not evident. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva flow rates were severely diminished, while a diagnostic biopsy of the lower lip revealed absence of minor salivary glands. Detailed hematologic and immunological investigations to exclude systemic disorders were also within normal limits. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the absence of all major salivary glands, confirming the clinical diagnosis of congenital aplasia of the salivary glands.
Results: Oral hygiene instructions and dietary advice were given while dental products with fluoride and saliva substitutes were administered and appropriate dental treatment was implemented. Regular dental follow-up was also advised.
Conclusions: Timely diagnosis of aplasia of the salivary glands is important, considering the detrimental effects of the absence of saliva on oral health. Management consists of the use of saliva substitutes, nutritional adaptation, maintenance of oral health and regular dental follow-ups.
Keywords: aplasia; salivary glands; xerostomia.